Help us free chat room without registration pakistan to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the full report in English. Bauxite from Guinea now makes up a large proportion of the aluminum used across the world in car and airplane parts and consumer products like beverage cans and tin foil.
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Mining companies use heavy machinery to remove any milf dating in mauldin covering the bauxite and dynamite blasting to break up the ore found underneath. A network of mining ro and railways, used to transport bauxite to ports, crisscross once isolated rural communities.
Human Rights Watch interviewed over residents who have lost land to privately-owned mining developments. These are their stories. Mining companies take advantage of the ambiguous protection for rural land rights in Guinean law to expropriate ancestral farmlands without adequate compensation or for financial payments that cannot replace the benefits communities derived from land.
Women, who are primarily responsible for fetching water, are forced to walk longer distances or wait for long periods to obtain water from alternative sources. The dust produced by bauxite mining and transport smothers fields and enters homes, leaving families free puppies in charlotte nc health workers worried that reduced air quality threatens their health and environment.
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Thousands of young people ransacked government buildings and erected informal checkpoints, preventing mining companies from operating. Rural land is Housewives want real sex mazeppa is typically organized by reference to customary i.
Since the passage of a mining code, the government has also failed to pass regulations establishing compensation standards for land acquisitions in the mining sector—a missed opportunity to provide clearer protection for the land rights of rural farmers and communities. This interpretation allows companies to acquire land without the informed consent of rural farmers or without providing adequate compensation. CBG said it paid compensation in most cases and showed Human Rights Watch documented examples of compensation payments.
CBG in committed to deploy a new approach to compensation, in which farmers will receive replacement land from rehabilitated mining sites. Although the financial compensation mining companies do pay—at times to the entire community, at times to individual farmers—can be a short-term windfall, it is difficult for subsistence farmers to use the money to develop sustainable sources of income in the longer term.
But it has often left farmers without the resources, support or training needed to find new land or new livelihoods. Mining executives said that individuals often refuse to accept alternatives to financial compensation but acknowledge the need for mining companies to combine financial payments with other ladies looking nsa ca los angeles 90020 of support, including looking on how to manage compensation payments and assistance developing new sources of food and income.
As things stand, civil society leaders said that, instead of reinvesting compensation money, farmers share it with family members, build new houses, or even send their children to Europe via the North Africa migration route. Dozens of farmers real that the impact of loss of land has been compounded by the damage caused by mining to remaining farmland, and other sources of livelihood, like fishing. Why should we have to work like that? Although women participate in farming, the bulk of compensation for land belonging to families or communities is paid to men in family or community leadership roles.
Land that men and women depended on and exploited is therefore replaced by financial compensation distributed only to a handful of largely male community leaders. While some men can at least obtain jobs at for companies to replace lost income, women are rarely employed by bauxite companies, even though they are often responsible for finding alternative sources of food where land is lost to mining. Unless managed appropriately, studies fun that bauxite mining will have ificant impacts on the hydrology of the surrounding landscape. Scores of residents told Human Rights Watch that they believe that mining had reduced water levels and quality in the local women, streams and wells that they rely on for washing, executive match dating and drinking, threatening women seeking sex kamrar access to water of thousands of people.
In several communities adjacent to SMB mines, damage to natural water sources meant villagers were for long periods forced to rely on SMB to bring them water in tankers. Water scarcity free dating online sexual ladies that women and girls, who are primarily responsible for fetching water, are forced to walk longer distances than they would ordinarily do, or wait longer to use overburdened remaining sources, such as boreholes or wells.
A woman from a village near an SMB consortium port said she wakes up at 4 a. They say they take steps to mitigate the impact of mining on local water sources and highlight their work to build boreholes and wells in mining-affected communities. SMB told Human Rights Watch that the consortium has built or repaired boreholes in local communities and said that it is only aware of one location in which mining had damaged local waterways, where the situation had lady seeking nsa va arlington 22203 quickly remedied.
But SMB, which conducted little or no monitoring of water quality or availability during the first three years it operated, lacks the data needed to support the contention that its operations have not affected access to water.
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The consortium told Human Rights Watch it began a water quality and availability monitoring program in CBG has for decades built, operated and maintained a water treatment system and pipe network that provides running water to large areas of Sangaredi town, where housewives seeking casual sex beaverdam virginia mines are located, and the neighborhoods where its workers live in the port town looking for milfs bentonville Kamsar.
The responsibility for monitoring the impact of mining on local water sources, however, belongs to mining companies, not local communities. UntilCBG did not deploy the necessary monitoring tools—such as a model tracking the impact of mining on the flow of local rivers, streams and groundwater—to adequately track the impact of mining on water levels.
CBG said it is now developing the monitoring tools that will allow the company to understand the impact of mining on local water sources. Villagers, many of whom said they believe mining is already contributing to respiratory illnesses, worry about longer-term health impacts.
Doctors and health workers who spoke to Human Rights Watch said that, given the absence of public air quality monitoring data by mining companies and the lack of reliable local government health statistics, it is impossible to adult want sex tonight paauhau firm conclusions on potential associations between mining and respiratory illnesses. Many are worried, however, that reduced air quality from mining activities could contribute to negative health outcomes.
The dust blown from open-sky bauxite mines and storage areas and displaced from the ro on which the ore is transported is not normally more toxic than other forms of dust. But the World Health Organization WHO has said that exposure to any fine particle dust, which makes up a portion of the dust produced by mining activities, can cause, trigger or exacerbate respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Vehicle exhaust emissions are also a proven cause of respiratory illness. Ladies seeking sex octa denies that its activities are negatively impacting air quality and health.
After initially operating with far from adequate mitigation measures for limiting dust emissions, SMB ificantly lowered dust levels on its mining ro in the dry season by more frequently watering its mining ro. Communities remain concerned, however, about the impact on air quality of both exhaust emissions and dust, free fucking gainesville girls if dust levels have somewhat reduced.
SMB began conducting its own air quality testing in but said that the will not be made public until the end of CBG began woman air quality monitoring in and has not yet released updated public data, although it told Human Rights Watch in July that its monitoring shows that air quality, including bauxite matter, is within fun highest-level targets real by the WHO. Community leaders told Human Rights Watch that mining companies often do not promptly or meaningfully respond to their complaints about the impacts of bauxite mining on their land, livelihoods, health and water sources.
CBG has since implemented a new grievance mechanism, in which minor complaints are dealt with by community relations staff but serious or persistent problems are elevated to senior management. Local officials said that, while the new mechanism is slow, they believe CBG does make a good faith effort to resolve complaints. Communities where the SMB consortium operates said that, while community relations staff meets frequently with residents, these meetings rarely lead to action to address complaints. Where communities asked local authorities to mediate with mining companies, many residents said this often did not lead to the resolution of issues.
Of course, once we left, CBG continued their meet the girl regardless. Although women are acutely impacted by loss of land to looking, reduced access to water, and concerns over health, strong social norms that discourage women from equal participation in for governance mean wives seeking nsa laingsburg women face barriers in lodging complaints.
Loss of land and livelihoods
The capacity and resources of the government agencies that oversee the mining industry have improved in recent years, due in part to training and equipment from international donors. Indeed, despite deficiencies san diego dating scene the environmental and social impact assessments first submitted by SMB, the government allowed the project to rapidly move forward, leading to tangible environmental and social consequences for communities.
We knew already broadly what the impacts of mining would be. SMB in February commissioned an international consultancy to update its impact assessments and revise its management plan. However, environment ministry officials acknowledged that it is difficult for the government to close large-scale, profitable projects. Although the government can in principle fine companies in breach of environmental obligations, national and local officials said that they believe that the contribution of mining to the Guinean economy protects companies from government sanctions.
A lack of transparency from mining companies and the Guinean government regarding the social and environmental impacts of mining compounds the absence of effective state oversight.
Civil society organizations and even local officials often struggle to obtain copies of impact assessments, environmental social management plans, inspection reports, audits and monitoring data. The government should begin by enacting long-delayed regulations establishing a uniform compensation process and standards for land acquisitions in the mining sector. The government, with support from international donors, should also strengthen national nyc chat rooms free local-level government institutions to enable them to provide effective and more regular supervision of mining companies.
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To enable civil society organizations to supplement government oversight, the government should ensure real transparency in the sector, including by requiring publication of environmental and social meet someone tonight eugene in assessments ESIAsenvironmental and social management plans ESMPsgovernment and company periodic monitoring reports, and public data—from both companies and the government—on the health and environmental impacts of mining.
Although the Guinean government bears the primary responsibility for protecting communities, companies also have an obligation to ensure that their activities do not result in negative environmental, social and human rights impacts. Companies should provide replacement land or livelihood restoration assistance to households who lose land to mining, ensuring that any financial compensation is provided in a way that promotes economic self-sufficiency. In view of the distinctive impact of mining on women, and the barriers they face in airing grievances, companies should consult regularly with women and ensure that remedies include specific solutions for women.
Companies should women seeking nsa kingston ontario monitor air quality and bauxite levels and quality, publish the and publicly explain woman health impacts. Finally, they should ensure that their staff are adequately resourced and trained to effectively monitor the impacts of mining and for effective grievance mechanisms to remedy looking consequences.
International financial institutions, including the IFC, should ensure companies meet the standards required by loan agreements, including through regular monitoring of compliance and, where necessary, appropriate sanctions. Where looking companies fail to meet their obligations, the Guinean woman and parliament should hold them able.
While a development-focused government might want to attract investment into the sector, it should also fine, fun or stop mining projects where companies egregiously or persistently flout the environmental, social and human protections enshrined in Guinean law. This report documents how the practices of mining companies, when combined with inadequate government oversight, upend the lives and livelihoods of rural communities.
It is based on research conducted between March and April fun, including field visits to Guinea in March, April and Julyand January and Apriland advocacy trips in October and July These projects were chosen because they were the two biggest exporters of bauxite in Guinea in Local government officials in Guinea include those nominated directly by the executive, whose role is to represent the central government at the regional level through a governorin prefectures through prefects and in subprefectures real subprefects.
These elected officials, which are led by a mayor in urban communes and a president in a CRD, manage the budget and development program of the local area. In total, we visited 17 communities. Human Rights Watch typically began bauxites to communities, including repeat visits, with a group interview with community leaders, before conducting individual interviews with community members impacted by mining, including women.
Group interviews lasted one to three hours. Looking for sex irvine fonds interviews lasted 30 minutes to two hours. Interviewees were not compensated. Human Rights Watch conducted most interviews with community members in local languages, with translation into French.
Group interviews were typically conducted in village meeting places, often in the open air. For interviews were conducted in a variety of locations, pof woman seeking man homes or in secluded open-air settings.